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  • Elements

    SODIUM
    11
    Na
    22.989770 (2)


    Compounds of sodium:

    sodium (I) chloride

    • Formula as commonly written: NaCl
    • Hill system formula: Cl1Na1
    • CAS registry number: [7647-14-5]
    • Formula weight: 58.442
    • Class: chloride

    Synonyms

    • sodium (I) chloride
    • sodium chloride
    • halite
    • rock salt

    Physical properties

    • Colour: white
    • Appearance: crystalline solid
    • Melting point: 801°C
    • Boiling point: 1413°C; 1465°C
    • Density: 2170 kg m-3

    Element analysis and oxidation numbers

    For each compound, and where possible, a formal oxidation number for each element is given, but the usefulness of this number is limited, especially so for p-block elements in particular. Based upon that oxidation number, an electronic configuration is also given but note that for more exotic compounds you should view this as a guide only.
    Element%Formal oxidation stateFormal electronic configuration
    Cl 60.66-1[Ne].3s2.3p6
    Na 39.341[Ne]

    Synthesis

    One way to make sodium chloride is to react the hydroxide with hydrochloric acid. The resulting salt can then be purified by recrystallization. In practice however, sodium chloride is available in massive amounts in nature and can simply be recrystallized to recover it.

    NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)

    While not a normal route of preparation because of the expense, sodium metal reacts vigorously with all the halogens to form sodium halides. So, it burns with chlorine, Cl2, to form sodium(I) chloride, NaCl.

    2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)

    Solid state structure

    • Geometry of sodium: 6 coordinate: octahedral
    • Prototypical structure: NaCl (rock salt)

    Crystal structure of sodium (I) chloride

    Isotope pattern

    What follows is the calculated isotope pattern for the NaCl unit with the most intense ion set to 100%.

    Formula: Na1Cl1

    mass %58 100.0 __________________________________________________
    59 0.0
    60 32.0 ________________

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    References

    The data on these compounds pages are assembled and adapted from the primary literature and several other sources including the following.

    • R.T. Sanderson in Chemical Periodicity, Reinhold, New York, USA, 1960.
    • N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth, UK, 1997.
    • F.A. Cotton, G. Wilkinson, C.A. Murillo, and M. Bochmann, in Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
    • A.F. Trotman-Dickenson, (ed.) in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1973.
    • R.W.G. Wyckoff, in Crystal Structures, volume 1, Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, 1963.
    • A.R.West in Basic solid state chemistry Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
    • A.F. Wells in Structural inorganic chemistry, 4th edition, Oxford, UK, 1975.
    • J.D.H. Donnay, (ed.) in Crystal data determinative tables, ACA monograph number 5, American Crystallographic Association, USA, 1963.
    • D.R. Lide, (ed.) in Chemical Rubber Company handbook of chemistry and physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 77th edition, 1996.
    • J.W. Mellor in A comprehensive treatise on inorganic and theoretical chemistry, volumes 1-16, Longmans, London, UK, 1922-1937.
    • J.E. Macintyre (ed.) in Dictionary of inorganic compounds, volumes 1-3, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1992.
    Fluorides
  • NaF
  • Chlorides
  • NaCl
  • Bromides
  • NaBr
  • Iodides
  • NaI
  • Hydrides
  • NaH
  • Oxides
  • NaO2
  • Na2O
  • Na2O2
  • Sulfides
  • Na2S.5H2O
  • Na2S.9H2O
  • Na2S
  • Selenides
  • Na2Se
  • Tellurides
  • Na2Te
  • Nitrides
    none listed




    Our data and resources are taken from Web Elements