Home
background
  • Key data; description
  • History
  • hydrogen around us
  • Uses
  • Geology
  • Biology
  • hydrogen compounds
  • Reactions of hydrogen
  • Compounds
  • Bond enthalpies
  • Radii in compounds
  • Lattice energies
  • Reduction potentials
  • nuclear properties
  • NMR
  • Naturally occurring isotopes
  • Radioisotopes
  • electronic properties
  • Electronic configuration
  • Ionization energies
  • Electron affinities
  • Electronegativities
  • Effective nuclear charges
  • Electron binding energies
  • Atom radii
  • Valence shell radii
  • physical properties
  • Bulk properties (density, resistivity, etc.)
  • Thermal properties (melting point, etc.)
  • Thermodynamic properties
  • crystallography
  • Crystal structure
  • Elements

    CHROMIUM
    24
    Cr
    51.9961 (6)


    Name: chromiumGroup number: 6
    Symbol: CrGroup name: (none)
    Atomic number: 24Period number: 4
    Atomic weight: 51.9961 (6)Block: d-block
    CAS Registry ID: 7440-47-3Voice:
    Standard state: solid at 298 KColour: silvery metallic
    Classification: MetallicAvailability:

    Nearing Zero cartoon for chromium
    Nearing Zero cartoon included by kind permission of Nick Kim.

    Emerald is a form of beryl (a beryllium aluminium silicate) which is green because of the inclusion of a little chromium into the beryl crytal lattice in place of some of the aluminium ions. Similarly, traces of chromium incorporated into the crystal lattice of corundum (crystalline aluminium oxide, Al2O3) as a replacement for some of the Al3+ ions results in another highly coloured gem stone, in this case the red ruby.

    Isolation

    Here is a brief summary of the isolation of chromium.

    It is not normally necessary to make chromium in the laboratory as it is so readily available commercially. The most useful source of chromium commercially is the ore chromite, FeCr2O4. Oxidation of this ore by air in molten alkali gives sodium chromate, Na2CrO4 in which the chromium is in the +6 oxidation state. This is converted to the Cr(III) oxide Cr2O3 by extraction into water, precipitation, and reduction with carbon. The oxide is then further reduced with aluminium or silicon to form chromium metal.

    Cr2O3 + 2Al 2Cr + Al2O3

    2Cr2O3 + 3Si 4Cr + 3SiO2

    Another kind of isolation is by electroplating processes. This involves the dissolution of Cr2O3 in sulphuric acid to give an electrolyte used for chromium electroplating.

    Fluorides
  • CrF2
  • CrF3
  • CrF4
  • CrF5
  • CrF6
  • Chlorides
  • CrCl2
  • CrCl3
  • CrCl4
  • Bromides
  • CrBr2
  • CrBr3
  • CrBr4
  • Iodides
  • CrI2
  • CrI3
  • CrI4
  • Hydrides
    none listed
    Oxides
  • CrO2
  • CrO3
  • Cr2O3
  • Cr3O4
  • Sulfides
  • Cr2S3
  • Selenides
  • CrSe
  • Tellurides
  • Cr2Te3
  • Nitrides
  • CrN




  • Our data and resources are taken from Web Elements