Home
background
  • Key data; description
  • History
  • hydrogen around us
  • Uses
  • Geology
  • Biology
  • hydrogen compounds
  • Reactions of hydrogen
  • Compounds
  • Bond enthalpies
  • Radii in compounds
  • Lattice energies
  • Reduction potentials
  • nuclear properties
  • NMR
  • Naturally occurring isotopes
  • Radioisotopes
  • electronic properties
  • Electronic configuration
  • Ionization energies
  • Electron affinities
  • Electronegativities
  • Effective nuclear charges
  • Electron binding energies
  • Atom radii
  • Valence shell radii
  • physical properties
  • Bulk properties (density, resistivity, etc.)
  • Thermal properties (melting point, etc.)
  • Thermodynamic properties
  • crystallography
  • Crystal structure
  • Elements

    SODIUM
    11
    Na
    22.989770 (2)


    Name: sodiumGroup number: 1
    Symbol: NaGroup name: Alkali metal
    Atomic number: 11Period number: 3
    Atomic weight: 22.989770 (2)Block: s-block
    CAS Registry ID: 7440-23-5Voice:
    Standard state: solid at 298 KColour: silvery white
    Classification: MetallicAvailability:

    Nearing Zero cartoon for sodium
    Nearing Zero cartoon included by kind permission of Nick Kim.

    Isolation

    Here is a brief summary of the isolation of sodium.

    Sodium would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is so readily available commercially. All syntheses require an electrolytic step as it is so difficult to add an electron to the poorly electronegative sodium ion Na+.

    Sodium is present as salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) in huge quantities in underground deposits (salt mines) and seawater and other natural waters. It is easily recovered as a solid by drying.

    Sodium chloride has a high melting point (> 800°C) meaning that it sould be expensive to melt it in order to carry out the electrolysis. However a mixture of NaCl (40%) and calcium chloride, CaCl2 (60%) melts at about 580°C and so much less energy and so expense is required for the electrolysis.

    cathode: Na+(l) + e- Na (l)

    anode: Cl-(l) 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-

    The electrolysis is carried out as a melt in a "Downs cell". In practice, the electrolysis process produces calcium metal as well but this is solidified in a collection pipe and returned back to the melt.

    Fluorides
  • NaF
  • Chlorides
  • NaCl
  • Bromides
  • NaBr
  • Iodides
  • NaI
  • Hydrides
  • NaH
  • Oxides
  • NaO2
  • Na2O
  • Na2O2
  • Sulfides
  • Na2S.5H2O
  • Na2S.9H2O
  • Na2S
  • Selenides
  • Na2Se
  • Tellurides
  • Na2Te
  • Nitrides
    none listed




    Our data and resources are taken from Web Elements