Home
background
  • Key data; description
  • History
  • hydrogen around us
  • Uses
  • Geology
  • Biology
  • hydrogen compounds
  • Reactions of hydrogen
  • Compounds
  • Bond enthalpies
  • Radii in compounds
  • Lattice energies
  • Reduction potentials
  • nuclear properties
  • NMR
  • Naturally occurring isotopes
  • Radioisotopes
  • electronic properties
  • Electronic configuration
  • Ionization energies
  • Electron affinities
  • Electronegativities
  • Effective nuclear charges
  • Electron binding energies
  • Atom radii
  • Valence shell radii
  • physical properties
  • Bulk properties (density, resistivity, etc.)
  • Thermal properties (melting point, etc.)
  • Thermodynamic properties
  • crystallography
  • Crystal structure
  • Elements

    SILICON
    14
    Si
    28.0855 (3) r


    Name: siliconGroup number: 14
    Symbol: SiGroup name: (none)
    Atomic number: 14Period number: 3
    Atomic weight: 28.0855 (3) rBlock: p-block
    CAS Registry ID: 7440-21-3Voice:
    Standard state: solid at 298 KColour: dark grey with a bluish tinge
    Classification: Semi-metallicAvailability:

    Nearing Zero cartoon for silicon
    Nearing Zero cartoon included by kind permission of Nick Kim.

    Isolation

    Here is a brief summary of the isolation of silicon.

    There is normally no need to make silicon in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially. Silicon is readily available through the treatment of silica, SiO2, with pure graphite (as coke) in an electric furnace.

    SiO2 + 2C Si + 2CO

    Under these conditions, silicon carbide, SiC, can form. However, provided the amount of SiO2 is kept high, silicon carbide may be eliminated.

    2SiC + SiO2 3Si + 2CO

    Very pure silicon can be made by the reaction of SiCl4 with hydrogen, followed by zone refining of the resultant silicon.

    SiCl4 + 2H2 Si + 4HCl

    Fluorides
  • SiF4
  • Chlorides
  • SiCl4
  • Bromides
  • SiBr4
  • Iodides
  • SiI4
  • Hydrides
  • SiH4
  • Si2H6
  • Oxides
  • SiO2
  • Sulfides
  • SiS2
  • Selenides
    none listed
    Tellurides
    none listed
    Nitrides
  • Si3N4




  • Our data and resources are taken from Web Elements